RUSSIAN ADJECTIVES

Definition: An adjective is defined as a word that modifies a noun or other substantive (a word o group of words that functions as a noun).

An adjective agrees in gender and number with the noun or pronoun it describes. Gender means masculine or feminine, sometimes neuter. Number means singular or plural.
In English, adjectives don't change their form. That is not true in Russian language; adjectives change to indicate gender, number, and case.

Most adjectives are qualitative in Russian grammar; they denote a quality or property of the noun or pronoun they modify. Adjectives can directly precede the noun they modify (that is, they can be in the attribute position), or they can be connected to the noun via the verb (that is, they can be in the predicative position).

There are two main types of adjectives in Russian grammar:

Long-Form Adjectives

These adjectives agree in gender, number and case with the nouns they modify.

  Singular Masculine Singular Neuter Singular Feminine Plural
Nom. -ый/ -ий/ -óй -ое/ -ее -ая/ -яя -ые/ -ие
Acc. like nom. or gen. -ое/ -ее -ую/ -юю
like nom. or gen.
Gen. -ого/ -его
-ой/ -ей -ых/ -их
Prep. -ом/ -ем -ой/ -ей -ых/ -их
Dat. -ому/ -ему -ой/ -ей -ым/ -им
Inst. -ым/ -им -ой/ -ей -ыми/ -ими

Examples:
  • This is a reliable car.

  • Это надежная машина.

  • Eto nadezhnaya mashina.


  • These cars are reliable.

  • Эти машины надежные.

  • Eti mashiny nadezhnye.

Short Form Adjectives

These adjectives agree in gender, number and case with the nouns they modify, but these only exist in the nominative form.

  Singular Masculine Singular Neuter Singular Feminine Plural
Nom. - -ы/ -и

Examples:
  • The letter is interesting.

  • Письмо интересно.

  • Pisʹmo interesno.


  • The classes are interesting.

  • Классы интересны.

  • Klassy interesny.



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